Annual UC payroll data reveals gender wage gap, below-market employee compensation

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The University of California released last year’s payroll data Wednesday, illuminating both salary increases and a continued earning gap between male and female faculty salaries.

The annual payroll data depict a 3 percent salary increase for nonunion employees for the second time in six years, as well as a continued tradition of athletic directors and health sciences faculty representing the highest-paid positions at the university. In addition, the university falls in line with the national gender gap trend, as significantly fewer women work in the highest-paying positions than men.

A report released by the university used this data to highlight the declining percentage of state and student educational fees used to fund payroll, as well as the effect of declining state support, which has pushed university employee compensation below market.

The annual presentation of payroll data — displayed in the form of a searchable database — is part of the university’s effort to provide transparency and public accountability through the names, titles, locations and pay for university faculty and staff, which includes student employees and part-time and temporary workers.

As of October, the university had approximately 101,000 full-time employees, which is about half of the total number that includes student and part-time employees. According to the university report, payroll made up about half of the university’s $23.9 billion annual operating budget.

The total payroll grew from $11.2 billion to $11.7 billion from 2012 to 2013, due in part to market pressures to establish more competitive faculty salaries.

According to the payroll data, 19 professors across the 10 UC campuses made more than $1 million in 2013, all of whom are connected to their campus’s medical school or medical centers. None of the professors are from UC Berkeley, while 10 are from UCLA. In 2012, 20 employees from the UC system made more than $1 million; in 2013, that number expanded to 29.

In 2013, the number of UC Berkeley employees making more than $500,000 increased from four to 11, compared to the previous year. Five of the 11 employees were athletic coaches.

Chancellor Nicholas Dirks has a base pay of $486,800, according to campus spokesperson Dan Mogulof. Former chancellor Robert Birgeneau had a base pay of $436,800 for 2012 and 2013.

Four women held positions in the 50 highest-paying jobs throughout all UC campuses and the UC Office of the President, while seven women were among the 50 highest-paid employees at UC Berkeley, down from 10 in 2012.

Mark Yudof, the former president of the university, had a base pay of $591,084 in 2012, while current president Janet Napolitano had an established base pay of $570,000 when she took office last year.

According to the 2013-14 American Association of University Professors faculty salary survey, which reviewed 1,156 institutions, UC Berkeley falls into the 89th percentile among doctoral institutions in terms of full professor salaries.

The survey found that UCLA’s faculty salary average of $173,900 was higher than that of UC Davis, at $136,700. UC Berkeley is in between with an average of $165,400.

In addition, the salaries for female professors on campus average $155,000, thus 91.7 percent of their male counterparts, who make, on average, $169,000. At the associate and assistant professor level, this disparity increases to 88.3 percent and 88.7 percent, respectively.

In comparison, female professors at Stanford University make 96.8 percent of male professors’ salaries and female associate and assistant professors make 89.3 percent and 95.4 percent of their male counterparts’ salaries, respectively.

According to the survey, male faculty salaries at UC Berkeley have also increased at a faster rate in recent years when compared to female faculty salaries.

“If the higher-paid fields tend to be disproportionately male, there tends to be a gender gap,” said Jesse Rothstein, campus associate professor of economics and public policy. “The question is why are there more men in these fields?”

Rothstein added that there are a number of complex factors to consider in terms of gender equity and pay.

“I wouldn’t be surprised to hear that, once you did account for all of the different factors, that there’s still a gender gap,” Rothstein said.

Contact Angel Grace Jennings at [email protected] and follow her on Twitter @angeljenningss.

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  • abernahi

    Scandalous. It’s scandalous the amount of money and time and energy the UC system wastes toward sports. I thought this was an educational institution!!! I wouldn’t pay an athletic coach any more than a gardener. That’s all it is worth, and in fact the gardener is really more important.

  • I’m all for reasonable compensation — $500k for a President who is basically the CEO of a university system larger than many countries actually is fine, but a coach should not be making five times that!

  • Amy

    Sadly, I’m not surprised.

    • Mel Content

      Not surprised about much? I’m not surprised that women on average make less than men, giving that in many career fields they do a lot less to begin with…

      • Amy

        Sexism much? In what fields exactly are women doing “a lot less to begin with”?

        • Mel Content

          I will give you an example. I worked as an engineer for a capital equipment company in the semiconductor industry for several years during the late 1990’s. All the male engineers were essentially “on call” to be able to travel on short notice worldwide in the event of a customer emergency. They were expected to be able to lug 50-60 lbs of baggage and tools to the airport, take multiple flights totaling up to 12 hours flying time over several time zones, grab a rental car or taxi at the destination airport and show up at the customer site ready to work. 12 hour workdays and 60 hour work weeks were not uncommon. Personally I didn’t mind it, because I was single, the work was interesting, the pay was good, and it beat having to hang around with the 8-to-5 office weenies. The women “engineers” for the most part were on another program: they put in strictly 8 hour days, you never saw one work on a Saturday, their “business travel” was limited to traveling stateside, accompanying sales & marketing types on customer sales calls and window dressing at trade shows. If they had to travel, they were always late to work the day after returning from their 1 or 2 day trips because they needed to “recover” from their 1 or 2 hours of “jet lag” (my usual trips, PHX-LAX-NRT and PHX-MPS-AMS were 8 and 9 hour time zone changes in comparison).

          This situation was pretty much tolerated for a couple of years as we were busy, all of us were making money, and we didn’t expect women to be able to handle the same rigors as men to begin with (and those guys who whined and complained about the situation were mocked and ridiculed, as they deserved to be). The real discontent began about the time that the head of our HR department decided that there weren’t enough women managers in the company, and began pushing the company as a whole to promote the women. Of course, in classic Dilbertesque fashion, the 8-to-5 weenies who based their perception of job performance on how much time you were in the office, decided these women would make fine managers because “they weren’t gone all the time”. The problem was that the women did not know the product, did not know the customers or their issues as well as the male engineers because they simply had not spent enough time in the field with them. They spent their time “managing” grown adults who didn’t need to be managed in the first place, because the different standards of expectation rendered them pretty much clueless about the work requirements and performance of the people in their section. Those departments with woman managers had greater turnover and poorer morale because it was clear those managers had less in terms of skills and experience than the people they managed.

          • Amy

            Your example proves that women might have been doing less in one field, but it does not prove that women across the board in *many* fields work less than men.

            There are a couple of key ways your anecdote fails as an example to justify the gender pay gap, especially the gap in pay between professors of different genders.

            First, your experience as an engineer differs greatly from the world of academia. Salaries and working hours for associate or assistant professors are very different from those of engineers. There’s no expectation of lugging 50 lb baggage or constant travel. The playing field for professors is pretty level in that sense, especially because colleagues of different genders will have comparable credentials. Thus, while women at your company in the 1990’s may have been paid less because they were *actually* doing less work, women professors today may be working the *same* amount as their male counterparts and *still* making less money.

            Second, your perspective is blind to one of the contextual reasons for the discrepancy in work expectations. Women at your company probably worked strictly 8-hours days because they had a family to take care of. After work, they likely had a “second shift”: picking up kids from daycare, cooking dinner, doing laundry, cleaning, etc. Because women disproportionately bear the brunt of the housework, they must sacrifice staying late at work or traveling extensively. It’s probably not that they didn’t want to put in the work or were intellectually or physically incapable of matching the male engineers–it’s that they were limited by their responsibilities at home. The unfair split in housework between men and women coupled with inflexibility in work hours is another reason why the pay gap exists.

            So, while your anecdote may be true from your point of view, it’s not a reason why the pay gap is justified at the University of California, and it’s an example of the type of prejudiced attitude men have toward women whom they perceive as “doing less work.”

          • Mel Content

            Second, your perspective is blind to one of the contextual reasons for
            the discrepancy in work expectations. Women at your company probably
            worked strictly 8-hours days because they had a family to take care of.
            After work, they likely had a “second shift”:

            So what? They aren’t doing work for the company, so why should they get paid for it?

            It’s probably not that they didn’t want to put in the work or were
            intellectually or physically incapable of matching the male engineers

            You don’t get out much in the real world, do you, little girl? Many women in the workplace play both sides of the fence when it comes to “equality”. They want the same privileges without the same responsibilities…

          • Amy

            First, your anecdote proves nothing about the matter at hand as reported by the article. Your short-sighted perspective on what happened at your workplace two decades ago only shows how bitter and angry you are, and how unlikely you are to ever change your mind. You have shown with your words a complete inability and unwillingness to accept the realities that women face.

            Second, I gave reasons why academia is different from your previous engineering firm. The issue is not how women at your previous company were paid. The issue is the pay gap at the University of California, which is very different in terms of playing field and work expectations. You can live in the past and make generalizations and assumptions about women all you want, but you can’t change what has happened and what will happen: the pay gap is closing. I’m not surprised that there is still a gap, because the entire course of history shows that women have been systematically oppressed, but this “little girl” isn’t going to give up without a fight. Especially not when patronizing people like you can’t even discuss the pay gap without resorting to sexist name-calling and belittling. (You should see how many males in my generation support equal pay.)

          • Mel Content

            First, your anecdote proves nothing about the matter at hand as reported
            by the article. Your short-sighted perspective on what happened at your
            workplace two decades ago only shows how bitter and angry you are, and
            how unlikely you are to ever change your mind.

            Not “bitter and angry” whatsoever, juts pointing out the truth. Women generally make less than men because they PRODUCE less than men. If women really did the same amount of productive work as men as only 2/3 the wages, then women would be hired in greater numbers than men because they would represent a huge savings in labor costs. They generally are not when it comes to private sector industries, so it’s clear that something else is in effect.

          • Amy

            On what are you basing your “truth”–your anecdotal personal experience as a man in the workforce?

            The reason for the pay gap is not as simple as you believe. Productivity is not the *only* criteria by which people’s salaries are determined. Especially for positions in academia, salaries are negotiated and paid well before actual output is measured. Experience, education, value of skills, and the person’s negotiating ability all affect how much someone is paid. And, of course, prejudiced beliefs like yours–that women professors are not worth as much pay simply because they are female.

            And even if productivity = pay, the Institute for Research and Labor Employment (part of the Department of Sociology at UC Berkeley) wrote a paper that concludes: “Were men and women to be paid according to their productivity, women would at the occupation-establishment level earn about 1% (Sweden), 2% (U.S.), or at most 3% (Norway) less than men. These conclusions hold across three countries and are based on accurate occupation-establishment wage data on about 1.1 million workers covering the period 1970–1990” (pages 34-35).

            1-3% less productive is nearly negligible, according to the study. This held true both for jobs that were piece-rate (workers paid by how much they produce) and time-rate (workers paid a salary independent of output). But the pay gap for women in time-rate (i.e., salaried) jobs was greater than in piece-rate jobs. Seems like the pay gap exists because people with discriminatory views like yours get away with paying women less for the same amount of productivity.

          • Mel Content

            And, of course, prejudiced beliefs like yours–that women professors are not worth as much pay simply because they are female.

            Of course, I never said such a thing, therefore you need to put words in my mouth.

            Seems like the pay gap exists because people with discriminatory views
            like yours get away with paying women less for the same amount of
            productivity.

            ONCE AGAIN, if women really did the same amount of productive work as men as only 2/3 the wages, then women would be hired in greater numbers than men
            because they would represent a huge savings in labor costs. They generally are not when it comes to private sector industries, so it’s clear that something else is in effect.

          • Amy

            Everything you are saying implies that you think women deserve less pay because they work less. So, it’s not much of a stretch, really, to apply that assumption you make about women in the workforce to women in academia.

            You’re still not thinking about the other factors that affect pay. Like I said before, salaries in academia are negotiated and paid well before productivity is measured. Your stipulation that women would be hired in greater numbers than men doesn’t take into account biases during hiring. Women are thought of as less hard working and less productive from the get-go (just like how you are generalizing that women do “a lot less to begin with”). This bias in favor of men means that businesses, whether they’re acting rationally or not, will hire the man over the woman, even if they have to pay the man more. Here’s a study of gender bias in hiring science faculty: http://www.pnas.org/content/109/41/16474.full

            From the summary: “In a randomized double-blind study (n = 127), science faculty from research-intensive universities rated the application materials of a student—who was randomly assigned either a male or female name—for a laboratory manager position. Faculty participants rated the male applicant as significantly more competent and hireable than the (identical) female applicant. These participants also selected a higher starting salary and offered more career mentoring to the male applicant.”

            And that is only one of the reasons why the pay gap exists.

  • bob

    All good reasons why I don’t give a dime to Cal!

    Excessive pay at the cost of rising tuition and leaving students holding the bag is so very un-Berkeley dude!

  • Nunya Beeswax

    What this article doesn’t mention is that the highest-paid people at UC are med school profs and athletics coaches. And of course, we have to pay our football coach $1.75 million per year in order to get top talent so that we can have a mediocre team, the majority of whom never graduate.

    • Portia Morris

      “According to the payroll data, 19 professors across the 10 UC campuses made more than $1 million in 2013, all of whom are connected to their campus’s medical school or medical centers.
      ….
      In 2013, the number of UC Berkeley employees making more than $500,000 increased from four to 11, compared to the previous year. Five of the 11 employees were athletic coaches.”

    • Amy

      “The annual payroll data depicts a 3 percent salary increase for nonunion employees for the second time in six years, as well as a continued tradition of athletic directors and health sciences faculty representing the highest-paid positions at the university. “