This article will focus on Pinealon and its involvement in extensive research on prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia. If this subject piques your interest, please continue reading.
Studies suggest Pinealon is a short synthetic peptide comprising three amino acids, namely Glu-Asp-Arg, also called the EDR peptide [i]. Pinealon is purported to exert an effect on the central nervous system, potentially resulting in alterations in behavior. Additionally, researchers speculate it may confer neuroprotection to neurons and other cellular entities by mitigating oxidative stress. Research suggests the primary property of this peptide is its purported capacity to traverse the blood-brain barrier, cellular membrane, and nuclear membrane. There is a possibility that it could interact directly with DNA molecules.
The Pinealon tripeptide is isolated from Cortexin [i], a distinct chemical compound. Cortexin is a low molecular weight polypeptide. Researchers have suggested that Cortexin may have the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier and potentially stimulate neurotransmitters in the brain due to its low weight [ii].
Pinealon Peptide Overview
Researchers have suggested that the Pinealon peptide may exhibit neuroprotective and anti-apoptotic properties through the MAPK/ERK signaling pathway [i]. These properties are characterized by the protection of neurons and neurotransmitters and the inhibition of cell death. The ERK signaling cascade is hypothesized to be involved in the phosphorylation of substrates, potentially resulting in heightened neuronal plasticity and augmented cellular stress. Consequently, this action can potentially induce programmed cell death, also known as cellular apoptosis.
The scientific community has posited that MAPK signaling may contribute to certain metabolic disorders and inflammatory responses. Scholarly research suggests Pinealon may decrease the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) on a cellular granular scale. ROS is recognized as a mediator of the MAPK and ERK signaling pathways, and a decrease in its production may result in a decline in signaling cascades. Consequently, this may impede cellular stress and apoptosis [i].
Research conducted on Pinealon has suggested that the peptide may exhibit concentration-dependent effects. Scientists hypothesize the peptide may impede the production and subsequent buildup of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular demise at lower concentrations. Conversely, findings suggest that the peptide may induce cell cycle regulation at higher concentrations. The researchers have suggested a correlation in the presence of peptides, which may exhibit antioxidant properties at lower concentrations. Interaction with the cell genome and subsequent cell cycle alteration is also possible. This information has been documented in previous literature [iii]. Researchers in various domains have investigated Pinealon to examine its potential effects in the following domains:
- It may exhibit anti-aging properties.
- It may stimulate the release of serotonin.
- It may alleviate neurological decline.
- It may have an impact on sleep cycles.
- It may result in alterations to behavior.
Pinealon Peptide Research and Scientific Investigations
Pinealon Peptide and Age
The primary objective of this clinical investigation was to analyze the cellular and metabolic characteristics of synthetic tripeptides, specifically Pinealon. In the present investigation [iv] context, a cohort of 32 subjects with poly-morbidity and organic brain syndrome were subjected to observation. The researchers suggested both peptides appeared to exhibit anabolic properties and were speculated to enhance the performance of critical organs such as the central nervous system. The observed lack of impact on chromatin condensation degree by the peptides may suggest that these peptides do not exert any discernible effect on cellular levels, as suggested by the researchers.
A separate investigation [v] suggested it has been proposed that the Pinealon peptide could potentially regulate the irisin levels in muscle cells. Scientific researchers hypothesize the secretion of Irisin may primarily occur during physical exercise and is deemed crucial for safeguarding muscle cells. Researchers speculate Irisin may have the potential to facilitate the burning of surplus fat and is also believed to promote the elongation of telomeres, which are protective caps on DNA. Studies suggest Pinealon may potentially elevate irisin levels, which may enhance the safeguarding of DNA telomeres and mitigate the effects of aging to a certain extent.
Pinealon Peptide and Prenatal Hyperhomocysteinemia
Studies suggest hyperhomocysteinemia is identified by elevated amino acid homocysteine (HC) levels in the bloodstream. This condition indicates a severe vitamin deficiency associated with increased susceptibility to neurological decline [vi]. The primary objective of the research [vii] was to assess the efficacy of Pinealon in mitigating hyperhomocysteinemia in pregnant female rats induced experimentally. Methionine was given to female rats beginning their second trimester, resulting in a notable elevation in homocysteine (HC) levels. Subsequently, the progeny of the sound and experimental mice were scrutinized for this investigation. After an analysis, the researchers suggested that the peptide did not demonstrate a reduction or inhibition of homocysteine development in the offspring.
Nevertheless, the findings suggested the peptide rats exhibited some cognitive enhancement, indicating a potential effect of the peptide. Researchers suggested the peptide did not stimulate homocysteine metabolism. However, it did result in an apparent reduction of the compound’s toxic effects.
Pinealon Peptide and Serotonin Expression
A series of investigations [viii] were carried out on cultures of brain cells isolated and subsequently exposed to the Pinealon peptide. After conducting an analysis, it was proposed that the peptide might potentially induce an increase in the expression of serotonin levels in the cell cultures. Researchers suggested the peptide was speculated to regulate the synthesis of the 5-tryptophan hydroxylase enzyme, which is responsible for serotonin synthesis, by applying the molecular docking method. Serotonin is widely regarded as a pivotal hormone for stabilizing mood, and ongoing research endeavors are exploring the potential of Pinealon for serotonin synthesis.
Further research is required to comprehensively understand the potential applications of the subject in the field of science. The utilization of Pinealon peptide is limited to research and educational institutions, and it is important to note that none of the substances discussed in this context have received approval for consumption by either humans or animals. Biotech Peptides is an excellent platform for authorized researchers seeking to procure peptides for research studies and scientific investigations.
[i] National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Summary for CID 10273502, Glu-Asp-Arg. https://pubchem.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/compound/Glu-Asp-Arg
[ii] Eroğlu, O., Karlıdağ, T., Kuloğlu, T., Keleş, E., Kaygusuz, İ., & Yalçın, Ş. (2018). The Protective Effect of Cortexin on Cisplatin-Induced Ototoxicity. The journal of international advanced otology, 14(1), 27–33. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6354512/
[iii] Khavinson V, Ribakova Y, Kulebiakin K, Vladychenskaya E, Kozina L, Arutjunyan A, Boldyrev A. Pinealon increases cell viability by suppression of free radical levels and activating proliferative processes. Rejuvenation Res. 2011 Oct;14(5):535-41. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/21978084/
[iv] Meshchaninov VN, Tkachenko EL, Zharkov SV, Gavrilov IV, Katyreva Iue. EFFECT OF SYNTHETIC PEPTIDES ON AGING OF PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC POLYMORBIDITY AND ORGANIC BRAIN SYNDROME OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM IN REMISSION. Adv Gerontol. 2015;28(1):62-7. Russian. PMID: 26390612. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26390612/
[v] Khavinson VKh, Kuznik BI, Tarnovskaya SI, Lin’kova NS. Short Peptides and Telomere Length Regulator Hormone Irisin. Bull Exp Biol Med. 2016 Jan;160(3):347-9. doi: 10.1007/s10517-016-3167-y. Epub 2016 Jan 8. PMID: 26742748. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/26742748/
[vi] Homocysteine. https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/21527-homocysteine
[vii] Arutjunyan, A., Kozina, L., Stvolinskiy, S., Bulygina, Y., Mashkina, A., & Khavinson, V. (2012). Pinealon protects the rat offspring from prenatal hyperhomocysteinemia. International journal of clinical and experimental medicine, 5(2), 179–185. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3342713/
[viii] Khavinson, V.K., Lin’kova, N.S., Tarnovskaya, S.I. et al. Short Peptides Stimulate Serotonin Expression in Cells of Brain Cortex. Bull Exp Biol Med 157, 77–80 (2014). https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10517-014-2496-y#citeas